In the northwest of Hanoi in Vinh Phu province, the Vietnamese civilization began between 2000 – 1400 BC.
MA and RED RIVIER
// 1200 – 600 BC.
The first rice fields were cultivated in flooded areas around the Ma and Red River. Canals and dikes were built to irrigate the rice fields.
// 111 BC. – 938 AD.
1000 years of rule by China. Vietnam was a province of the Chinese empire.
Cultural influences: Buddhism, Confucianism, Chinese writing, architecture, art, clothing, chopsticks, woks, rice noodles.
// 6th – 1st century BC.
Cambodian Funan Kingdom ruled over the southern part of Vietnam.
// 2nd – 10th century
The Champa kingdom ruled around Da Nang in central Vietnam, but after the apogee in the 10th century the civilization declined. It was in constant conflict with China, Vietnam, Khmer and later Mongolia. In 1832 Vietnam finally conquered the remaining areas of the Cham.
Cultural influences: Hindu influences, spicy food, coconut milk, curry.
// 9th – 15th century
Around 1757 Vietnam occupied the entire area in the southern Mekong Delta of the Khmer.
Cultural influences: Hindu influences.
// 10th century
Mongolia occupied Vietnam.
Cultural influences: beef fondue.
PORTUGAL | EUROPEAN TRADE
// 16th century
In 1535 Portugal founded the first trading post in Vietnam at the present town Hoi An.
Cultural influences: refinement and variety, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, asparagus, cabbage, cauliflower, chillies.
// 1802 – 1945
Emperor Gia Long unified Vietnam to the current S-shape with the central Hue as the capital of Vietnam.
// 1883 – 1954
In the 19th century, Vietnam was occupied by France and divided into three provinces: Cochinchina, Annam and Tonkin. Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos were part of the French colonial Indochina region. The capital of Indochina was Saigon, Hanoi (1902), Da Lat (1939) and again in 1945, Hanoi.
Cultural influences: Latin alphabet, Catholicism, culinary techniques, French agricultural products, agricultural techniques, baguette, coffee, peanuts, Burgundian wines, chocolates, milk, butter, cakes, kem caramel, increased beef consumption.
In 1940, Japan attacked French Indochina, and occupied parts of Vietnam in 1945. The Vietnamese opposition coalition Viet Minh was founded in 1941 by Ho Chi Minh, Vo Nguyen Giap, Le Duan and Pham Van Dong. The Viet Minh turned against both the French and the Japanese. Japan surrendered a few months later and Emperor Bao Dai, who has collaborated with the Japanese, was forced to abdicate. The Vietnamese resistance against the French grew.
NORTH AND SOUTH VIETNAM
In 1954 the French lost the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and under the Geneva Accords Vietnam was divided into communist North Vietnam, which was supported by China and the Soviet Union, and anti-communist South Vietnam, that was supported by America.
THE VIETNAM WAR/AMERICAN WAR
The U.S. supported the South Vietnamese regime and increased the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam to fight against the communist North Vietnam. On April 30, 1975 Saigon fell into the hands of North Vietnam and the Vietnam War came to an end. North and South Vietnam were reunited to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The North Vietnamese city Hanoi became the capital of Vietnam, and Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City. During the Vietnam War more than 2.5 million Vietnamese died.
// 1975 – 1995
After the fall of Saigon people feared the new regime and over 800,000 Vietnamese fled the country by boat, the so-called boat refugees. The boat refugees who were lucky were saved by American and European navies and traders that they encountered on the way. They were often brought to neighboring countries and islands, waiting for asylum in a third country.
Cultural influence: globalization of Vietnamese cuisine.
Vietnam was in a state of international isolation and suffered from poverty and famine. Economic reform Doi Moi was introduced to slowly transform the communist country into a socialist-oriented market economy.
Cultural influence: gastronomic revival by the arrival of eateries and restaurants. Vietnam is one of the largest exporters of rice.
Vietnam became the 150th member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on January 11, 2007. Vietnam is currently a transition country, the group of middle income is growing rapidly.
The US imposed an arms and trade embargo following the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. Nineteen years later in 1994, President Clinton lifted the trade embargo. In 2000, Clinton was the first US head of state to visit Vietnam since before the war. In 2011 Vietnam had a military cooperation agreement with the US, the first since the war between the two countries. Until now, Russia was the main military partner of Vietnam.
In 1995, the European Union and Vietnam signed an agreement on economic cooperation and bilateral trade. The EU promised to help Vietnam with the introduction of a market economy, environmental protection and resource conservation.